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We argue that substituting trade of food for collectibles for delayed reciprocity can increase food sharing.

Trade-based division of labor in hunting between tribes is consistent with (although not securely confirmed by) the archaeological evidence from the Paleolithic in Europe.These migrating bands, following their herds, frequently interacted, creating many opportunities for trade.However, if the transaction costs could be lowered, by lowering the need for trust between bands, food that was worth a day's labor to one band might be worth several months' labor to the starving band.Local but extremely valuable trade was, this essay argues, made possible among many cultures by the advent of collectibles, by the time of the Upper Paleolithic.While many Europeans even in the Paleolithic enjoyed wearing shell necklaces, many lived farther inland and made necklaces instead out of the teeth of their prey.

Flints, axes, furs, and other collectibles were also quite likely used as media of exchange.If the starving man can save his life by trading his most precious valuables, it may be worth to him months or even years of the labor it might take to replace that value.He will usually consider his life worth more than the sentimental value of the family heirlooms.However, for most of the time span of these herds were abundant and easy pickings to specialist hunters.According to our theory of trade-based predation, specialization was quite likely far higher when large prey roamed North America, Europe, and Africa in large herds during the Paleolithic.surveys models of how and why food is sometimes transfered between animals: tolerated theft, producing/scrounging/opportunism, risk-sensitive subsistence, by-product mutualism, delayed reciprocity, trade/exchange not in kind, and other selection models (including kin altruism).